Kaleo BlogFrom our pastors
If you have often struggled to find a balance between learning about Scripture and living it out, then Owen on the Christian Life is a good book to better see how this can happen. I have enjoyed learning about Christian doctrine, but I find too often an inconsistency in how I apply the truth of scripture to my life. To know about God has really been more of a hobby, something I find great interest in, but is done more for my glory rather than to know God as he is revealed in Scripture. Owen is a great help for me in mending that inconsistency.
This quote by John Owen captures well the two springs of mind and heart:
“Our belief of the Scriptures to be the word of God, or a divine revelation, and our understanding of the mind and will of God as revealed in them, are the two springs of all our interest in Christian religion. From all those streams of light and truth derived whereby our souls are watered, refreshed, and made fruitful unto God.”
Owen upholds the supremacy of Scripture for faith and practice, and therein lies the challenge to live in light of the glory of the truth of God’s Word, and to not merely acquire knowledge about God but to know Him more intimately.
1 John 3:16 says this: “By this we know that he laid down his life for us, and we ought to lay down our lives for the brother.” To say that I love God and then to have hatred or enmity against a brother is to really say I don’t love at all. This is a grave inconsistency in what I truly believe about God and the clear commandment to love God with your whole heart, mind, soul and strength, and to love your neighbor as yourself.
John also says later in this chapter that, “Whoever keeps his commandments abides in God, and God in him” (1 John 3:24). This obedience is not to gain approval or to somehow earn our acceptance before God, but is rooted in the gospel truth that we have been rescued from trying to earn our salvation and that we have an Advocate before the Father who is greater than our hearts (1 John 2:1-2; 3:20). For while we were still weak, at the right time, Christ died for the ungodly to be reconciled to God (Rom. 5:6-8), that we may rejoice in the new life we have in Him. We are then seeking to know God more through His Word but grow more in the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, that will shine in our hearts to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ. 2 Corinthians 4:4-6.
This book is a good intro into the doctrine and life of John Owen, and I enjoyed reading about the way his explanations of Scriptural truth lead to praise and worship. Reformed doctrine in the mid sixteenth century, on the heels of Reformation, has a strong conviction that salvation is of the Lord (Jonah 2:9).
My favorite chapter of the book dealt with this key doctrine, and it brings great joy to know that what God starts He will finish. If left to myself, I wouldn’t want to seek God and have anything to do with Him. It is by His grace alone that I have access to the Father, through the work of Christ, and by the power of the Holy Spirit.
I found myself wanting to read more about this great Reformer in England and to delve more into his writings. With a style unique to the Puritans, I did find that his prose was more accessible that other Puritans, chief among them Jonathan Edwards.
I am grateful for the opportunity to read this book on Owen and I pray that I’d go with eagerness to the Word and know God better. He has given us His word so that we may know Him and treasure Him above all else. There is none beside You, who can give hope and peace and the forgiveness of sins. Where else can I go?
I pray that my studies would be pleasing in your sight and be useful in edifying your church. I am praying that the truth of your Word would not be an exercise in gaining knowledge, but that I’d grow to know You better and more intimately, all for Your glory and for the benefit of Your church.
Book notes: Owen and the Christian Life. Matthew Barnett and Michael A. G. Haykin
Ryan Carr is one of the Missional Community leaders at Kaleo Church in El Cajon. Him and his wife, Kathryn, have been married for 1 year.
Recently, one of my good friends showed me a book he was reading. The book was called For the Fame of God’s Name; Essays in Honor of John Piper. The book is a collection of essays and articles written by 27 different authors and ministers, in honor of Pastor John Piper and his over 30 years of influence on the Christian church. For those of you who know of Pastor John and his ministry, one thing is very clear about him; he desires God’s name to be hallowed in all things for the joy of all peoples.
Though I am not one of the 27 authors or ministers who contributed to this collection, I am one of thousands that have been deeply influenced by this man. From the winter of 2009 until the winter of 2013, I had the privilege to sit under Pastor John’s teaching during his final years as the lead teaching pastor of Bethlehem Baptist Church. As I began to think more deeply about this book, I asked myself, “What would I write about this man?” After all, there are few men who have influenced my life more than Pastor John.
Though there are many things to be said in honor of Pastor John, my intention here is not to write an essay adding to the 27 that have already been published. I believe those men are much wiser and more gifted to appropriately pay tribute to Pastor John. Therefore, I will let their collection stand as sufficient means to bring appropriate honor to this man. Rather, I wanted to simply think about and consider influence.
When I think about influence, many men and women in my past come to mind. Yes, they were more than just teachers and coaches, mothers and fathers, brothers and sisters, pastors and friends. As I listened and watched how they lived, they formed the very fabric of my thinking and how I understood life. These people instilled in me what was right and wrong, good and bad, just and wicked. My behaviors and my actions were shaped and molded by the influences of these men and women. I learned to be an imitator of their way of life.
And that’s the test of being truly influenced, isn’t it? Imitation is the outcome of true and lasting influence. A child imitates their parents, a younger sibling their older sibling, a pupil their teacher, and an athlete their coach. Imitating the influences around us isn’t a choice. We all receive influence whether it is right or wrong, good or evil, true or false. It’s there, in our face, and all around us. That much we cannot control. The question is though, who will you imitate?
The Apostle Paul was likely the largest influence on the Corinthian church. So much so, that he calls himself their father (1 Corinthians 4:15). It would follow rightly then that Paul charges the church in Corinth to be imitators of him (1 Corinthians 4:16, 11:1a). However, Paul doesn’t stop there. He gives the Corinthians clarity of what type of person to imitate. He gives them a lens of testing to look through that would show them how to imitate him. That lens is Christ (1 Corinthians 4:17b, 11:1b).
Paul is not concerned about making more “Pauls.” He isn’t looking to gain an audience that favors him over the other teachers of his time. In fact, he refutes this wayward thinking earlier in his 1st letter to the Corinthians (1 Corinthians 3:1-11). Rather, Paul is concerned that men see past him to Christ. Paul was not a man without influence. His mission was to point past himself to Christ, who had changed him in an instant, and caused him to consider all he had gained to be loss (Acts 9; 2 Corinthians 11:21b-30; Philippians 3:2-11).
So it is clear then, that when Paul charges the Corinthians to imitate him, what he means is, as far as he is imitating Christ. But, how are we to imitate Christ? And why? I think the answer to the first question will lend a hand in answering the second.
The question of how to imitate Christ is a bit tricky. Of course, there is not a soul on earth that can make atonement for the sins of another because there is none without sin (Romans 39-18, 23). Jesus death is sufficient to atone for sin because, being God, his atonement is eternal, and being man, he never sinned (Hebrews 9:11-13; 1 Peter 2:22). So it would follow that we are not to imitate Christ in the effect that we are to atone for other’s sins. Rather, we are to imitate Christ in the laying down of our lives to save others.
This may sound like the same thing. To clarify, let’s look at what Paul says just prior to his charge to the Corinthian church in 1 Corinthians 11:1.
Paul says he glorifies God in all things, not by seeking his own advantage, but by seeking the advantage of many. He demonstrates then, that in seeking their advantage above his own, what he means is their salvation (1 Corinthians 10:31, 33b). Paul imitates Christ in the setting aside anything that would be advantageous for himself so that others might hear the good news of the gospel and be saved. Paul’s laying down of his life was not to make atonement for sins. Rather, it was dying to the comforts and temptations to gain his own advantage so he could clearly point to the only one who truly and finally takes away sin. In the same way, we are to imitate losing our lives for the salvation of others and the glory of God.
And now the question of why? I mean, this all seems a bit scary, right? Losing your life sounds like a big deal.
Jesus says in Matthew 16:25, “For whoever would save his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life for my sake will find it.” He doesn’t give a third option. You can save your life by imitating the world and its desires of the flesh. Going along with the wave of social pressures will likely bring a life of pleasure and ease. In the end though, 70 years of pleasure and ease in a fallen, imperfect world, is incomparable to an eternity of perfect pleasure and full joy in the presence of God (Psalm 16:11). By imitating Christ, you lose your life in the sense that you no longer imitate the world and its desires, but rather, you imitate your Creator. The world sees this as a life wasted and lost. But in reality, a life spent imitating the Creator is a life lived as it was meant to be lived. It is true life now and in eternity.
This is why Paul could say, “to live is Christ, and to die is gain (Philippians 1:21). He truly was out for the best life now and in eternity. It is also the reason Paul considered as loss what he once counted gain (Philippians 3:11). Paul understood that life can only be found in Jesus Christ (John 1:4). And what does that exactly mean? Everlasting life with God through Christ (John 17:21a).
So, it would stand to take care and be watchful in your life and household, Christian. Examine yourselves and the heroes you herald through the lens of Christ. The question is not will you be an imitator, but who will you imitate? One leads to everlasting loss of life, the other to the everlasting gain of it.
It is good to have heroes, especially heroes of the Faith. John Piper is one of them for me. Though I have only known him in the 3rd person, I am indebted to him for his influence on my life. More appropriately, I am grateful for seeing past him to Christ.
Blog post written by Dave Mishler. Dave is the co-leader of one of Kaleo Church’s Missional Communities and helps oversee the liturgy and order of service at Kaleo Church.
One thing I often hear amongst congregational members of churches in America regarding preaching is this: The preacher did not teach me how to apply his sermon to my life. To that I ask: Is he supposed to?
We need to first understand that the Bible is ultimately not about me. Yes, the Bible has many things to say about who you are, where you are from, and why you were created. It even has a whole book centered on the prayers and wrestling’s of the human heart. But if we fundamentally believe the Bible is about us, then undoubtedly you will be left asking what this text or that passage has to say to you.
The Bible is about who God is and what He has done. It is a unilateral story of redemption that shows all things in history are from Him, through Him, and to Him, to the praise and glory of Christ (Rom. 11:36). In short, the Bible is about Jesus. The whole counsel of God is thematically either pointing forward to Christ or looking back to Christ (cf. Luke 24:27; Acts 8:27ff). If then the preacher is being faithful to the text in his sermon it will deliver exactly that content to the congregation.
Now soak that last sentence in for a minute. What can we conclude from that? Sermons become more Christocentric and Christ-exalting and less people-centered and application driven. In other words, you start focusing less on yourself because you can’t get past the magnitude and beauty of Jesus. And seeing who we are in Christ will start to impact what we say, do, and think. Seeing His glory in the face of Jesus begins to change our affections, our attitudes, and our decisions (cf. 2 Cor. 3:18); “we love, because He first loved us” (1 Jn 4:19).
It is impossible for the preacher to deliver 50, 200, 500 different individual applications from the text. If you look around in the church, good chance you will see many different people than you; different backgrounds, different stories, different sufferings. Take for example the text Hebrews 12:1-2,
Therefore, since we are surrounded by so great a cloud of witnesses, let us also lay aside every weight, and sin which clings so closely, and let us run with endurance the race that is set before us, 2 looking to Jesus, the founder and perfecter of our faith, who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is seated at the right hand of the throne of God.
The point of this passage is that Jesus is the founder and perfecter of enduring faith in which the “men of old” gained approval (11:2). Verse 1 of chapter 12 tells us how to apply that great truth – by laying aside every weight and sin and run with endurance this race of life. But how does that look in your life? For one, the eagerness to put to death the habitual sin of worry comes to mind. Another finds the strength to preserve through the constant storms of life they are finding themselves going through. And another may see the conviction that they are running this race with a lack of joy seen in v2. The point is this: Jesus is the main point of this passage. We are called to “fix our eyes” on Him. And in so seeing Him, your life begins to change a little bit more.
All of the Scriptures from Genesis 1 to Revelation 22 are breathed-out by God and are profitable for teaching, rebuking, correcting, and training in righteousness. It is the responsibility of the preacher to bear faithfulness to the Word in his preaching. But the responsibility on applying what God has revealed in that particular text befalls the listener. Everyone will be responsible for their own actions and their own thoughts as it’s weighed against the story of God.
So my encouragement is that just as the preacher prayerfully prepares in delivering the sermon to us, we as listeners ought also to prayerfully listen and watch as the sermon is being preached to us.
Written by Joshua Kinney. Joshua and his wife Christine are the directors of children’s ministry at Kaleo Church.
Last week my family and I took 4 days off and rented a little beach house in San Clemente. I had no plans apart from family time, except to meditate on 1 Timothy. As I read it a couple times a day, I found 1 Timothy 4:7-10 standing out. It says,
Have nothing to do with irreverent, silly myths. Rather train yourself for godliness;
8 for while bodily training is of some value, godliness is of value in
every way, as it holds promise for the present life and also for the life to come.
9 The saying is trustworthy and deserving of full acceptance. 10 For to this end
we toil and strive, because we have our hope set on the living God, who is the
Savior of all people, especially of those who believe.
I had the benefit of going to a Christian college. However, with that said, 1 Timothy 4:8 was painted on the gym, plastered across the locker rooms, and was used in any advertisement for Christian sports. Like a bad Bible interpreter, I never paid much attention to that verse because of the way it was used. However, as I kept rereading 1 Timothy last week, I could not escape the word “godliness.” Paul uses some form of the word “godliness” ten times in 1 Timothy. Why is Paul repeating this word so many times to his young apprentice and what is he trying to accomplish with Timothy?
Paul was trying to prepare this young pastor for a well-rounded ministry. Paul believed that right doctrine leads to right living. In our culture today, truth is often in the eye of the beholder and to declare that something is objective truth can cause someone to be seen as intolerant or arrogant. While some people think if we could just return to the early church, we could live in a culture where truth was highly regarded. But that is not the case. In 1 Timothy 3:14-15, Paul tells Timothy something very important regarding truth and life, showing us it was something just as important then :
I hope to come to you soon, but I am writing these things to you so that, 15 if
I delay, you may know how one ought to behave in the household of God,
which is the church of the living God, a pillar and buttress of the truth.
In short, Paul is passing the baton on to Timothy that doctrine drastically motivates behavior. Now, some may respond to that and say, “Jesus did it all, this sounds like law to me?” There is a major difference between a behavior that merits God’s grace and a behavior that is radically driven by God’s grace. The latter is what Paul calls godliness. Godliness is the right behavior that has been so moved by the glory of God that one cannot respond to such glory.
This is where I was forced to look at Paul’s call to train in godliness. I asked myself, “Do I train in godliness the way I discipline myself in other areas of my life?” What about you? For some of you it may be the strict discipline of being at the gym every day, buying all the right food, doing meal prep, etc. The hours and physical discipline bring about a desired result. Do we put the same discipline and time into responding to who God is and what he has done for us? Do we train our tongues to be used for God’s glory rather than getting a reaction out of people or just making them laugh to get a reaction? Do we train to fight the temptations of lust the same way we train for other things we love? Or does our view of God’s sovereignty lead us to wrongly believe we can passively sit by and wait on God. Or do we, like Paul calls Timothy to do, train in godliness? Another thing with godliness is that it not only holds promise for this present life, but also the present life to come. This means that our present godliness has eternal results. We are being groomed and prepared for eternity with the One who has our affections. But throughout history, people all live for what they love. Godliness lives for God. Coolness lives for being cool. Whatever it is for you, you are disciplined in what you love.
The struggle of the human heart is not necessarily to love, but to love the wrong things and live for them. That is why Paul reminds Timothy in the dead center of his letter what the clearest picture of godliness is as well as that which will rightly motivate our godliness. He writes in 1 Timothy 3:16,
Great indeed, we confess, is the mystery of godliness: He was manifested in
the flesh, vindicated by the Spirit, seen by angels, proclaimed among the nations,
believed on in the world, taken up in glory.
This beautiful verse is worthy of much more explanation but one thing stands out: The godliness of God took on flesh and is our confession. The fact that Christ would take on a human body and live among his people is a loud declaration that Jesus came to redeem our lack of godliness and so change our affections to love him and live for him. As Calvin says, “How wide is the difference between God and man! And yet in Christ we behold the infinite glory of God united to our polluted flesh in such a manner that they become one.”
If you have affections for Jesus, the mystery of godliness is no longer concealed. God has revealed to you the mystery of his plan of redemption. And the affections you have for the God-man cannot lead to passivity, but godliness in the household of God and towards your neighbor. Godliness is not a bad word reserved for legalists, nor is it something meant to merit the love of God. It is a by-product of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. This means that the amount of joy found in Christ is also experienced in godliness. This godliness is one that holds promise for this life and the life to come when we see our glorious Savior face to face.
Halloween is upon us along with all the festivities and decorations. My family lives in a mobile-home park with 200+ houses. Every year since my oldest daughter, Olivia, was born, she has loved going around and looking at the Halloween decorations. In fact, all day every day she asks about the “skeleton with the spinning eyes,” “the blow-up train,” the “blow-up cat,” etc. Well, this is the first year that her little sister, Hadley, has an understanding of what is going on with all these decorations. Two nights ago I took Olivia and Hadley for a walk right before family worship so Olivia could see the “blow-up cat.” What was going to be a quick walk, God used to help me better understand him as a safe place to cling to.
As we drew near to this four-foot long and two-foot high blow up cat with sharp teeth and a rotating head, Hadley’s frame quickly changed from silly and laughing to quiet and afraid. As I picked her up, she buried her head into my chest and both hands clinched the skin of my chest. I gently commanded Olivia to turn around and follow me home. While the cat was out of sight, Hadley continued pressing into me and clinching on to my skin. I was her safe place, I was her refuge.
The next morning, Thomas and I enjoyed our daily 5am Psalm reading and time of prayer. The Psalm for the day was Psalm 63. And there in verse 9, David says, “My soul clings to you; your right hand upholds me.” What a picture of what happened with Hadley the night before? Where Hadley viewed me as her safe place, the one she could cling to, it made me question myself. It made me ask, “Am I as quick to cling to the Lord? Or do I look elsewhere for safety and comfort?”
This might raise questions for you as well. When job security is not what it once was, do you cling to the Lord or find yourself overcome with worry and anxiety? When your life hasn’t turned out the way you hoped, do you take things into your own hands and plan for a future elsewhere thinking you will find the kingdom of God there and not where you are? When your kids aren’t obeying the way they ought, do you turn to control and anger to get what you want?
The thing about clinging to the Lord, is that our clinging is a result of the state of our hearts. It says that we trust nothing above him, that he alone is our safety and comfort. In Psalm 63, David is in the wilderness and is physically hungry and thirsty. He has every reason to use his God-given faculties to create ways to find food and water, which he should. But before David trusts in himself for security or comfort, he clings to the Lord. The result of clinging to the Lord in the wilderness is a heart impacted and satisfied by spiritual realities. In Psalm 63:1 David thirsts for the Lord in a dry and weary land. In verse 2 he looks beyond the physical and unto the Lord. In verse 3, his dry and parched lips praise the Lord. And in verse 5, the same mouth that desires physical food will be satisfied on the spiritual food of God.
This might propose a difficult challenge for us because, unlike David, we rarely find ourselves in the wilderness and more surrounded by things that promise security and comfort. Where David had no one else to cling to but the Lord, we have often clung to the things of this world to fulfill the desires of our heart. But the good news in Psalm 63 is that the living water that leads parched lips to praise and the satisfying food to the hungry soul is none other than Christ himself. In John 6, after feeding more than five-thousand people, Jesus proclaims to be the living bread that came down from heaven to satisfy our hungry souls (John 6:48-58). The result is two groups of people. The first group are those that only want the physical bread and full belly (6:60-65). They were clinging to that which would not satisfy. The second group are his closest disciples. When Jesus asks them if they want to leave also, Peter responds with a perfect picture of clinging to Jesus. He says, “Lord, to whom shall we go? You have the words of eternal life, and we have believed, and have come to know, that you are the Holy One of God.” (John 6:68-69)
Again, in John 7:37-39 we see that Jesus is the living water that leads parched lips to praise. After a week of partying and celebrating God’s faithfulness to the wilderness generation, Jesus stands up and says, “If anyone thirsts, let him come to me and drink.” Later on in John, Jesus picks up this same language on the cross. When Jesus is nailed to the cross for all the times his people have found their security and comfort in the world, he alone endured physical and spiritual thirst…for us! Rather than take things into his own hands, flexing his muscles and escaping the sufferings of the cross, he willingly suffers. When Hadley had dug her nails into my chest and left bruises, I didn’t push her away but pulled her in tighter to know I would keep her safe. In the same way, Jesus takes the wrath of God upon himself with love for us so we have a safe place to hide and find acceptance and love. But in doing so, he also shows us what it looks like to cling to God in the worst of circumstances. On the cross there was no security and no comfort for Jesus apart from entrusting himself to his Father.
So, my question to myself that night with Hadley, and after reading Psalm 63, was, “How might I better cling to the Lord and praise him rather than grumble?” The parched soul who is afraid he/she is not safe finds comfort and security by looking unto the bread of life and the fountain of living water that truly does satisfy.
And calling the crowd to him with his disciples, he said to them, “If anyone would come after me, let him deny himself and take up his cross and follow me. 35 For whoever would save his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life for my sake and the gospel’s will save it. 36 For what does it profit a man to gain the whole world and forfeit his soul? (Mark 8:34-36, ESV)
It has been a while since I have asked myself this question. I typically read this familiar passage and conclude that the disciples were dumb, like I can often be, and missed Jesus’ whole point. In fact, he tells the disciples three times in the Gospel of Mark that he must die and raise from the dead, but they miss it. While I haven’t necessarily missed that crucial point, partly because I have the whole revelation of God at my fingertips, I have missed meditation on this passage and surveying my own life. When was the last time I died?
I can remember some of those big moments where I died to myself in some radical way that has made me feel like I was doing “something big” for Jesus. At the beginning of 2007 I left a six-figure job training Army guys and blowing stuff up. I left that job to move to San Diego and go to college and help plant a church. In doing so I died to what I loved doing to pursue a call to ministry that I wasn’t all that sure of yet. There are times like that I can look back on and really remember dying to myself and following Jesus.
What about lately? As I thought about this question this morning, I couldn’t think of any big things. I can’t look back to the last four to five years and trace those “big” moments. Then it hit me. As a man who is absolutely convinced that God speaks through the Scriptures, that there are an abundance of small daily decisions that require me to die to myself when my life disagrees with God’s Word. The times I want to speak impure words or words that hurt others, I die when I submit to Ephesians 4:29 and 5:4. It has been in the times where I want to get even with those that hurt me with their words but I die in not reviling when reviled (1 Peter 2:23). It is dying when I come home from a long and hard day of pastoral ministry and have to check-in and lead my family in family worship, be present during bath and bedtime, and still ask my sweet bride how she is doing.
Everyday comes with its own chances to trust God and die to self. One that I am currently learning is dying to what I think I need to do to please people, and rather, having the freedom to say no and really rest when I need it. My friend and fellow pastor is currently in Uganda with his wife and kids adopting a sweet little girl. I am not him. I do not preach like him, I do not counsel like him, and I do not have the same capacities he does. I am daily dying to this expectation to be him. But I am living to be who God made me and how he is conforming me more into the image of his Son (Romans 12:2). In short, I am dying to myself and the expectations of others and living in the freedom of the death and resurrection of Christ. But the truth is, dying is hard and it often hurts. Every time a piece of me died, it really does hurt. However, the worth that follows is superior to any part of me that dies. And the great news is that I am not alone.
Jesus knew that middle-ground, that bridge between death and life. On the night he was betrayed and falsely arrested, the weight of the coming crucifixion weighed on him heavily. In Matthew 26:39, Jesus says, “My Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me; nevertheless, not as I will, but as you will.” Jesus was the only one to ever walk this earth that truly deserved for the cup to pass. He did not deserve the wrath of God. He could have washed his hands of the whole Trinitarian plan to save a people and would have been right in doing so. But in his great love, he submitted to his Father and died to himself.
Jesus shows us that dying to ourself doesn’t always bring us immediate reward. Despite him trusting his Father, he still went to the cross and died for his people. This means that we do not die to ourself to get something in return. No, we die to get someone in return. Every time we die to the temptations of this world, whether that be lust, gossip, slander, etc., we are choosing God himself. While He is worth every painful choice to die to self, there is a day coming where the weight of these small decisions to die will produce their weight. On that Day it will be clear that we did not forfeit our soul for the world, but forfeited our selfish desires for the God who will be our joy and satisfaction forevermore (Psalm 16:11).
To be completely transparent with you, I have died a lot in the last 4 months, but much of it has been reluctantly. I have struggled to die to myself because the pain and the tears seemed too much at times. Yet, every time I have died and gained more of Jesus, a deep and quiet joy has replaced that which died. Lastly, that great Day that is coming will be one where we will never again die but be in the presence of the Source of life forever and ever. Jesus will be our eternal joy and we will say with all assurance that whatever died in us on Earth made the New Heavens and New Earth that much better. Where have you died lately?